Grammatical analysis in the Czech Republic

Anna Vernerova in 2019:

  • Sentence diagramming has become part of the Czech curriculum after Vladimír Šmilauer (1895-1983) started using it in his textbook of syntax for pedagogy students (Učebnice větného rozboru, 1st edition 1955, 7 later editions, of which 2 were updated). The only source of inspiration that he directly mentions are the writings of Tesniere, but his system differs substantially from Tesniere’s in multiple aspects (Tesniere treats subjects on par with objects – as dependant on the verb, Šmilauer treats the subject-predicate pair as a special kind of relation of two elements on the same level in the dependency tree; in Tesniere’s work, word-order is ignored, in Šmilauer’s diagrams, word order is retained; but both are strictly dependency approaches (except for weird structures like coordination, naturally)). Apparently, Šmilauer also mentioned the possibility to draw diagrams in the introduction to the answer key of his 1947 grammar book (Novočeská syntax).
  • … the image on your webpage [for the Capek project] is only half-similar to what Czech school kids know. In particular, it contains positional morphological tags that are used in the Czech corpora but would be completely unknown to the general public. Better illustrations can be found on one of these links:
    • Drawing a sentence diagram (notice that she starts by underlining the subject and the predicate, subject with a straight line and predicate with a wavy line; the two corresponding nodes of the graph are linked by a double line) [commentary in Czech]
    • A diagram for another sentence  (inside the circles are the words in the sentence, they are labeled with the type of sentence element:
      • Po = podmět = subject,
      • Př = přísudek = predicate,
      • Pt4 = object in accusative (in Czech, the cases are traditionally numbered),
      • Pks = congruent attribute (i.e. such that it agrees in the morphological features with its head),
      • Pkn = incongruent attribute (the form of the attribute is constant and does not depend on the form of its head),
      • Puč = temporal modification
    • Another sentence diagram
    • Anna Bartíková, Syntax v současných učebnicích češtiny (Masters Dissertation 2014) [in Czech]
      • pages 51-55: a comparison of the conventions of several current textbook series
      • pages 55-57: compound sentences
    • Sometimes, the graph is drawn horizontally, directly above (the subject-predicate pair) and below the sentence: an example.
    • In case of a complement (a sentence element that has a double dependency), the resulting graph is not a tree: the diagram for “(He) was invited to the conference as a specialist”– “as a specialist” has one dependency on “he” (which is not present in the sentence, Czech is a pro-drop language), another dependency on “was invited”.
    • In contrast to Reed-Kellog, the Czech system normally does not mix diagrams of single clause sentences with diagramming the structure of compound (multi-clause) sentences. 
      • For the latter, see e.g. slides 4 and 11, 13, 15, … on the site run by Kamil Kopecki. Abbreviations:
        • VH = věta hlavní = main clause,
        • VV = věta vedlejší = dependant clause,
        • 1VHb means “Clause 1 which is the main clause, part b”
      • The type of relationship between clauses is also analyzed and marked:

Barbora Hladka in 2013:  The Capek project

    • The link at ‘View sentences analyzed by teachers’ takes you to 31 Czech sentences, with English translations, analyzed using the standard analytical system taught in Czech schools. This system gives each sentence a structural diagram with a box of grammatical information for each word or word-group. Each sentence has a separate page which includes a convenient key to the notation.
    • Czech schools teach a diagramming system similar to the Reed and Kellogg diagrams invented in the USA. For example:

 

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